With each passing days we are witnessing increase in COVID-19 cases globally. Till 20th of July we have witnessed around 15 million cases worldwide and 1.1 million cases in India which is the third most affected country in the world after USA and Brazil. As numbers are increasing day by day we all are getting more curious about the vaccine. Though no one is certain about when will we get the vaccine but there are handful of vaccine candidates whose initial phase trials are promising.
The Oxford University’s researchers in collaboration with UK government and bio pharmaceutical major AstraZeneca is ahead of all other vaccine candidates. In initial phase I/II human trials it has shown to be safe and also capable of building immune response against the virus as it is developing both T cells and antibodies. Though some side effects like muscle pain,fever and headache are also experienced in some people but it wasn’t long Lasting.Tweeting The Lancet article on the study’s findings, Richard Horton, the editor-in-chief of the prestigious journal, said that the results are “extremely encouraging”. “The phase 1/2 Oxford COVID-19 vaccine trial is now published. The vaccine is safe, well-tolerated, and immunogenic,” Horton said. It is currently in the third phase of the trial which is right now taking place in UK, Brazil and South Africa. In this trial they are going to give dose of the vaccine to about 10000 people and it is believed that the third phase result which will come, most probably, in October will be the deciding one. If it is successful then we might get the vaccine by the end of this year.
Two other vaccines, one from USA and another from China have also shown promising results in initial human trials. US based Moderna showed effective results and is ready to enter in phase 3 trials on 27th of July. The vaccine will be given to 30000 patients to see whether it is able to develop immune system against corona virus or not.
Similarly China is also going to start its third phase trial. Bangladesh Medical Research Council has approved vaccine by Chinese firm Sinovac Biotech Ltd to do its final stage trial. Last month, Sinovac said that it is expecting to complete the last phase of its prospective COVID-19 vaccine before November claiming that the inoculate has proved safe and effective on human so far.
India based Covaxin has also started the initial phase of human trials. It will be conducted in three phases. In the first phase, samples of 375 healthy people aged between 18-55 years will be studied which will take around 4 to 6 weeks. In this stage it will be observed whether this vaccine is safe or not. Phase two trial will be conducted on 750 healthy people aged between 12-65 years. In the third phase, it will be conducted on a larger scale. In second and third phase it will be analysed if it is able to develop the required immune system or not. So according to AIIMS director if everything goes smoothly we will get the vaccine probably by the end of this year or early next year.